Raft, pile, pier and beam foundations


Concrete for raft, pile, pier and beam foundations shall be:

  1. of a suitable mix design to achieve the required strength and resistance to chemical and frost action
  2. correctly mixed, placed and cured.

Mixing, placing, testing and curing of concrete should be carried out as indicated in Chapter 3.1 ‘Concrete and its reinforcement’ and when work is carried out in cold weather, Chapter 3.2 ‘Cold weather working’.

Suitable mix

Concrete should be of a mix which:

  • will achieve the required strength and not impair the performance of the foundation
  • is sufficiently resistant to chemical and frost action.

Correctly mixed, placed and cured

Before concrete is placed, excavations and reinforcement may need to be approved by the engineer or their representative and, in England and Wales, foundations should be approved by the person responsible for building control inspections.

Concreting should:

  • be carried out in one operation (as far as possible)
  • take account of weather conditions and available daylight
  • be placed as soon as possible after the excavation or after the reinforcement has been checked
  • be placed in even, compact and reasonably dry trenches.